Research to improve the quality of antivenom and the treatment system using antivenom (AMED Ato Group)

Marine Envenomation

Due to global warming, human interaction with toxic marine organisms is increasing, and physicians in Japan and around the world are encountering more and more cases of toxic marine organism bites and stings in their clinical practice. The annual incidence in Florida and eastern Australia is approximately 100,000 cases. Previous clinical reports of toxic marine organisms include injuries and deaths caused by the bonefish in southeastern Brazil and the amboyna mussel, the most dangerous to humans. However, there are few reviews of the clinical features of toxic marine organisms, and no comprehensive review of antivenoms as curative treatments.
This site presents details of bites and stings caused by the humpback jellyfish, pond scorpionfish, skipjack tuna, amboyna mussel, and leopard octopus, as well as their epidemiology, toxicological activity, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment. A comprehensive review of clinically available antivenom treatments will also be presented.
 Since no large-scale epidemiological studies have been conducted on toxic marine organisms, there is a significant shortage of data, although continued data collection is ongoing. As the number of bite and sting cases of toxic marine organisms will undoubtedly increase in the future, care must be taken in diagnosis and response.

Hifumi T, et al. SN Comprehensive Clinical Medicine (2020) 2:2288–2292